Hak Masyarakat Adat (Indigenous Peoples) atas Sumberdaya Alam: Perspektif Hukum Internasional

Main Author: Muazzin, Muazzin
Format: Article info application/pdf Journal
Bahasa: ind
Terbitan: Fakultas Hukum Universitas Padjadjaran , 2014
Online Access: http://jurnal.unpad.ac.id/pjih/article/view/7072
http://jurnal.unpad.ac.id/pjih/article/view/7072/3292
Daftar Isi:
  • AbstrakSelama dekade terakhir, hukum internasional telah berkembang lebih baik dengan mempertimbangkan hak masyarakat adat atas sumber daya alam yang kemudian memengaruhi hukum berbagai negara. Meskipun demikian, dalam praktiknya, hak masyarakat adat atas sumber daya alam tidak selalu dijamin dan ditegakkan. Selain itu, hak masyarakat adat tersebut kurang mendapatkan pengakuan hukum formal meskipun dalam beberapa tahun terakhir beberapa negara telah mengesahkan undang-undang untuk melindungi hak masyarakat adat atas sumber daya alam. Artikel ini berusaha untuk menganalisis kerangka hukum internasional yang memberikan perlindungan secara memadai terhadap isu-isu tentang hak masyarakat adat atas sumber daya alam. Konvensi ILO 169 telah menetapkan beberapa hak masyarakat adat yang penting, seperti free dan informed consent, consultation, dan compensation. Ketentuan konvensi tentang hak atas sumber daya alam memiliki pengaruh terhadap berbagai negara dalam penyusunan instrumen lainnya. Konvensi juga digunakan sebagai referensi dalam kasus hukum domestik, misalnya di Bolivia, Argentina, Venezuela, dan pengadilan regional. The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indig­enous Peoples (UNDRIP) merupakan dokumen penting bagi pengakuan dan perlindungan hak-hak masyarakat adat di tingkat internasional. Deklarasi ini mengakui hak-hak kolektif, termasuk the right to self-determination dan the right to cultural heritage and intel­lectual property. Referensi tentang hak atas tanah dapat ditemukan di seluruh deklarasi. Pasal 26 merupakan salah satu ketentuan utama. Ketentuan ini memiliki visi yang jauh ke depan, terutama pengakuan bahwa masyarakat adat memiliki hak atas tanah yang mereka miliki secara tradisional dan menguasai sumber daya yang mereka miliki. Berdasarkan Pasal 32, negara berkewajiban menerapkan the free, prior and informed consent dari masyarakat adat sebelum memberikan persetujuan proyek-proyek yang dapat memengaruhi tanah mereka.Kata kunci: hak atas sumber daya alam, hak masyarakat adat, hukum internasional, Konvensi ILO 169, sumber daya alam. The Rights of Indigeneous People over Natural Resources: International Law PerspectivesAbstractOver the past decade, international law has evolved so as to better take into consideration indigenous peoples' natural resources rights and has influenced in many ways the law of numerous states. However, in practice, indigenous peoples' natural resources rights are not always guaranteed and enforced. Furthermore, most of the indigenous peoples lack formal legal recognition of their natural resources rights, although in recent years some states have adopted legislation to secure indigenous peoples' natural resources rights. This article seeks to analyze whether within the framework of international law, a suf­ficient protection to indigenous peoples regarding natural resources rights issues has been provided. ILO Convention 169 entrenches important indigenous peoples' rights such as free and informed consent, consultation and compensation. Its provisions on natural resources rights have had an influence on states and on the drafting of other instruments. The Convention has also been used as a point of reference in domestic case law in regional courts (for example in Bolivia, Argentina, and Venezuela). The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indig­enous Peoples (UNDRIP) represents an important step towards the recognition and protection of indigenous peoples' rights at international level. It acknowledges numerous collective rights, including the right to self-determination and the right to cultural heritage and intel­lectual property. References to land rights can be found throughout the Declaration. Article 26 is one of the key provisions; it is far reaching, especially in recognizing that indigenous peoples have a right over the lands they have traditionally owned and have control over the resources that they possess. It also acknowledges that states must give legal recognition to these lands and that customary land tenure must be respected. Article 32 requires states to obtain the free, prior and informed consent of indigenous peoples before approving projects that can affect their lands.Keywords: rights to natural resources, indigenous peoples rights, international law, ILO Convention 169, natural resources.DOI: https://doi.org/10.22304/pjih.v1n2.a7